Ravisankar Mayavaram miinalochanii at YAHOO.COM
Sun Feb 6 16:58:11 CST 2000

I asked this question because, the term pratyagaatman comes twice in X:20
commentary of shankara. In both places, Krishna Warrier translates it as
Subject (with capital S).

aham aatma pratyagaatma guDaakesha

aham aatma pratyagaatma nityam dheyaH

I thought it is used as Subject in the sense of Seer (like in
dR^ik-dR^ishya).  Also like pratyakSham, the pratyak in pratyagaatman is
used in that sense.  At least I thought so.

I see your point. I think the Subject is aatman, which is jiivaatman with
limitations and paramaatman when the limitations are removed.



--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" <jaldhar at> wrote:
> On Sun, 6 Feb 2000, Ravisankar Mayavaram wrote:
> > How does this then differ from the term "jiivaatman"?
> I don't think it does as far as Advaita Vedanta is concerned but other
> Vedantic schools do not agree that a seperate Jiva is necessarily a
> deluded Jiva.
> --
> Jaldhar H. Vyas <jaldhar at>

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