S. V. Subrahmanian svs_shankara at HOTMAIL.COM
Fri Jul 7 08:55:47 CDT 2000


Shri Anandji and Shri VidyaShankarji (anybody else who may be able to

I am reading Vidyaranya's introduction to Upanishads, as translated by Sri
Alladi Mahadeva* Shastry.  He indulges in a discussion of the pramanAs.  I
would like to know in detail about the discussions on the pramanAs and their
validity (or invalidity).

Have any one of you written about it ?  Or is there is a standard text (like
Shankara's works) where they are discussed and invalidated in a cogent
argument ?  Also, the author says that the 3 pramaNAs are pratyakSa, anumana
and 'Agama'.  Is 'Agama' the same as 'sabda' pramanA (doesn't seem like) ?

I would love to read an explanation from either of you.  But if you don't
have time, please point me to appropriate sites/authors/books and I will
fend for myself.

Also the author seems (not sure) to have the influence of Theosophical
Society.  Is their (Theosophical Society's) conception/understanding of
sacred texts considered generally authoritative/authentic ?

There is a paragraph in his discussion of pratyakSa pramaNA where he says
the following:

"...Accordingly, the mind, proceeding towards the insentient external
objects, first causes the thing to flash and then thinks of the appropriate
word to be used; and then man speaks...."

I think he is talking of the concept of "ghatadeSa." as opposed to "ghata"
itself (with regard to the mind 'proceeding towards the insentient external
objects').  Again, which text takes up the argument in a detailed manner ?

Thanking you in antcipation.


S. V. Subrahmanian
svs_shankara at
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