Sabda - Bhartrihari

H.B.Dave hbd at
Thu Jul 11 03:16:35 CDT 2002

Shrinivas Gadkari wrote:

> Namaste ShriKrishnaji,
> Thanks for the information you have been providing
> on books. I will keep an eye on these books.
> I do intend to keep discussion on this topic
> alive. However duration between postings might
> be long partly due to time constraints and
> partly due to the nature of study involved.
> May be I will take this opportunity to ask if
> any list memebers can shed some light on shiva
> sutras of panini. These are 14 verses with a
> peculiar arrangement of vowels and consonants.
> ($$$)
> Thanks and best regards
> Shrinivas

I had posted the following a few days back, but some how it
did not appear on the List.

1.    ($$$) Please see the attached text file.

2.    It is interesting to note that many of the names of Gods and
messiahs, some of which are used in nama-Japa, contain "r" sound.
For example : Krishna, Rama, Rahim, Christ, Raghu, Brahman,

It happens that  "r" sound has a frequency component arround
10 Hz, which happens to be Alpha frequency of EEG. This has
considerable significance in efficacy of a mantra (a word as an
antrument to deal with mind). Similarly, the sounds of Nasal
group (m, n, .n, etc) are also very effective.

3. Indian Mantra and Tantra experts have done considerable
work in these lines. For those interested, I would recommend
the classic "ParaTrishika" by Abhinava Gupta,
the English translation by Jaidev Singh is available.

Best Wishes,
-- Himanshu
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A Few words about speech sounds -I :

------------------------------------ Himanshu

A deep analysis of what is speech sound is given in the
Mahabhashya by Patanjali on Panini's Ashtaadhyayi.
Several commentaries and sub-commentaries are written
on the Mahabhashya. In one of them by Nagesh Bhatt on
Kaiyata's Vyakhyana, a set of shlokas by  Nandikeshvara
in reference to the Maaheshvara Suutras is given.

It is known as Kaashikaa od Nandikeshvara.

It is a kind of meditation of individual speech sound.
It is of interest in the present discussion.

It is well known that according to Vaidika tradition,
speech sound are envisaged to be be generated from
the drum of Lord Nateshvara (Shiva). These sounds, as
used in Sanskrit language, are put in a very significant
and systematic order in form of what is known as
Maaheshvara Suutras.

I would like to give below the Kaashikaa by Nandikeshvara,
with bare translation. A commentary on these shlokas by
Upamanyu is available.

Original Shiva-Suutras are inicated as [Shiva-n].

{\skt n.rttaavasaane na.taraajaraajo nanaada .dhakkaa.m navapa~ncavaaram |}
{\skt uddharttukaama.h sanakaadisiddhaanetadvimar"se "sivasuutrajaalam  ||}

At the end of the Tandava dance, Shiva played on the drum, desiring
to wake up the four Rishis - Sanaka etc. He played 9x5= 45 times, in 14
groups forming 14 Suutras of Shivasuutra strings. He wanted to convey the
Vaak through which Atman is accessible.

{\skt atra sarvatra antyavar.nacaturda"sam |}
{\skt dhaatvartha.m samupaadi.s.ta.m paa.ninyaadii.s.tasiddhaye ||} (2)

There are 14 syllables, one at the end of each of the Suutra, and they
help Paanini and others in their effort to define Dhatu.

{\skt a i u .n} [Shiva-1]

{\skt akaaro brahmaruupa.h |}
{\skt citkalaami.m samaa"sritya jagadruupa u.nii"svara.h ||} (3)

By this first Suutra, the Atman which is source of generation
of all the syllabii and all the beings is being indicated.

"a" is Parameshvara, Nirguna, who taking help of "i" - Maya,
becomes "u" the all-pervading, Saguna, ".n" = is.

Giitaa also says "{\skt ak.saraa.naam akaaro.smi} "I am the 'a'
amongst the speech sounds."

{\skt akaara.h sarvavar.naagrya.h prakaa"sa.h parame"svara.h |}
{\skt aadyamantyena sa.myogaadahamityeva jaayate ||}         (4)

The "a" sound, the First amongst all the syllables, is the Light,
the Parameshvara. Only by joining of the first "a" and the last
"h" the "I" - {skt aham} the Ego, gets generated. Or in other
words, "aham" encompasses everything there is.

{\skt sarva.m paraatmaka.m puurva.m j~naptimaatramida.m jagat |}
{\skt j~napterbabhuuva pa"syantii madhyamaa vaak tata.h sm.rtaa ||} (5)

As a result of Maya and as per Karma of previous births, from Para
vaak arising in the Heart, Pashyanti, and further, Madhyama arises.
All the perceived World is only perceptions, supported by these

{\skt vaktre vi"suddhacakraakhye vaikharii saa mataa tata.h |}
{\skt s.r.s.tyaavirbhaavamaasadya madhyamaa vaak samaa mataa ||}    (6)

Then Vaikhari Vaak gets generated in the mouth, the Vishuddha
Chakra. The manifestation of the World is due to these Vaak.
Though there is some little difference between the actual
speech sounds produced by individual human, there is no
difference between the speech at Madhyama Vaak level, it is
same for every one.

{\skt akaara.m sa.mnidhiik.rtya jagataa.m kaara.natvata.h |}
{\skt ikaara.h sarvavar.naanaa.m " matam ||} (7)

{\skt jagatsra.s.tumabhuudicchaa yadaa hyaasiittadaabhavat |}
{\skt kaamabiijamiti praahurmunayo vedapaaragaa.h ||}            (8)

{\skt akaaro j~naptimaatra.m syaadikaara"scitkalaa mataa |}
{\skt ukaaro vi.s.nurityaahurvyaapakatvaanmahe"svara.h   ||}     (9)

"a" is, when manifested, the cause of the World. "i" is considered
the cause of all the syllables due to its power. When it desired
to create the World, it created itself and so it is called
Kaamabiija - the Seed of Desire - by seer who have understood
the Vedas.

"a" is a quantum of knowledge, "i" is the variation (movement)
of the consciousness and "u" is said to be Vishnu, due to its
wide pervading.

{\skt .r .l k }                                            [Shiva-2]

{\skt sarve"svaro maayaa.m manov.rttimadar"sayat |}
{\skt taameva v.rttimaa"sritya jagadruupamajiijanat    ||}      (10)

".r" is Parameshvara, ".l" is the movement of mind known
as Maya and "k" = showed. Parameshvara only, taking resort
to Maya, created the World. ".r" represents ".rtam" the
Law, Parabrahma. ".l" represents Maya, Parameshvari. They
as if form a couple.

{\skt v.rttiv.rttimatoratra bhedale"so na vidyate |}
{\skt candracandrikayoryadvadyathaa vaagarthayorapi ||}        (11)

{\skt svecchayaa svasya cicchaktau vi"svamunmiilayatyasau |}
{\skt var.naanaa.m madhyama.m kliibam.r.lvar.nadvaya.m vidu.h ||}(12)

There is no difference between various movements of mind
(v.rtti). The relationship between the Vaak and its meaning is
just like  moon and its moon-light.

By its own will, it manifests (unfolds) its mental power as the

Amongst the syllables, these middle two - .r.l - are considered
impotent or neuters.

{Ending "k" denotes Prakriti.                        -- Himanshu}

These five syllables given in the first two Shiva-suutras
create all the remaining syllables. They denote the five
Mahabhuuta - aakaasha, etc.

{\skt e o ~n }                                           [Shiva-3]

{\skt eo~nmaaye"svaraatmyaikyavij~naana.m   |}
{\skt saak.sitvaatsarvabhuutaanaa.m sa eka iti ni"scitam ||}   (13)

Fearing that by assuming the relationship of the Creator and the
created, the principle of Advaita will not be obeyed, depending
upon Shruti like : {\skt tats.r.s.tvaa tadevaanupraavi"sat},
it says : eo~n maaye"svara : the Creator and the Creation is
itself only. "a" resulting in "u" in Pra.nava (aum or om)
denotes the oneness of the Saguna and Nirguna and by that
example, refutation of the Dvaita is indicated, by understanding
oneness of all.

By considering the difference in Samashti and Vyashti view-points,
this Suutra indicates the combination of the "a" with "i" and
"a" with "u". "a" is Akshara, "i" is Maya, so their combination
"a" + "i" = "e" indicates Praj~naanaatmaa which is in form of
Highest level of Knowledge and also Advaita.

"e" indiacates the Mahavakya - praj~naanam brahma - and
    aham brahmaasmi

Similarly "a" + "u" = "o" indicates that Parabrahma is
sarvasakshi - witness to all.

"o" indicates the Mahavakya - tattvamasi - and
    ayamaatmaa brahma.

{\skt ai au c }                                          [Shiva-4]

{\skt ai auc brahmasvaruupa.h san jagatsvaantargata.m tata.h |}
{\skt icchayaa vistara.m kartumaaviraasiinmahaamuni.h       ||}(14)

Doubting that : how can the Unborn Paramatma be the cause of the
World, replies ai au c.

"ai" is combination of Knowledge (J~naana)  and power ("sakti).
It wanted the unfolding of the World which is within itself.
"a" dirgha (elongated)  +"i" dirgha = "ai".

Similarly "a" dirgha + "u" dirgha = "au".

Thus "ai" and "au" denote Creator of all, Witness of all.

It is said that
{\skt pra.navena jagadvyaapta.m maayaayaamavati.s.thate}
The World, established in Maya, is pervaded by Omkara.

Due to short and long versions of each of these vowels,
we have a total 14 vowels.

Now we come to the consonants.

{\skt ha ya va ra .t}                                  [Shiva-5]

{\skt bhuutapa"ncakametasmaaddhayavara.nmahe"svaraat |}
{\skt vyomavaayvambuvanhyaakhyabhuutaanyaasiitsa eva hi ||} (15)

>From Parameshvara the five Mahabhuutas generated, but they are
Him only. The five are : aakaa"sa vaayu ambu agni p.rthivii.

{\skt hakaaraadvyomasa.mj~na.m ca yakaaraadvaayuruucyate |}
{\skt rakaaraadvahnistoya.m tu vakaaraaditisaiva vaak  ||} (16)

"ha" denotes aakaa"sa, "ya" denotes vaayu, "va" denotes water,
and "ra" denotes agni, that is the vaak only.

{Ending ".t" denotes buddhi or mental level of activity. All
the four Mahabhutas denote mental processes.     -- Himanshu}

{\skt la .n }                                         [Shiva-6]

{\skt aadhaarabhuuta.m bhuutaanaamannaadiinaa.m ca kaara.nam |}
{\skt annaadretastato jiiva.h kaara.natvaalla.niiritam      ||}(17)

It is already said that the five Mahabhutas created from
Paramatma are the cause of the Creation. In (16) four of the
five Mahabhutas are given. Here the fifth - earth - called
aadhaara the support, because it supports various kinds of
beings. Thus "la" denotes earth.

{Interestingly, the syllable ".n" follows both "a""i""u" and
"la". We have already said that ".n" denotes existence. Both
Paramatma "a" and the support "la" exist, but at different
levels of reality.                                  -- Himanshu}

{\skt "na ma ~na .na na m }                           [Shiva-7]

{\skt "sabdaspar"sau ruuparasagandhaa"sca "nama~na.nanam |}
{\skt vyomaadiinaa.m gu.naa hyete ||}(18)

Now the order of creation of Tanmatras which take part in further
creation from earth etc. is given.

Sound, touch, form, extract and smell are denoted by the five
syllables "na etc.

{We may consider these to be modes of transfer of energy :
wave propagation, convection, diffusion, electricity and
chemical material.                                 -- Himanshu}

{Ending "m" denotes relation to energy             -- Himanshu}

{\skt jha bha "n }                                    [Shiva-8]

{\skt vaakpaa.nii ca jhabha"naasiidviraa.druupacidaatmana.h |}
{\skt vij~neya.m sthaavaraadau na vidyate    ||}
{\skt vargaa.naa.m turyavar.naa ye karmendriyamayaa hi te  ||} (19)

{\skt gha .dha dha .s }                               [Shiva-9]

{\skt gha.dhadha.s sarvadhaatunaa.m paadapaayu upasthaka.h |}
{\skt karmendriyaga.naa hyete jaataa hi paramaarthata.h   ||} (20)

In these Suutras Karmendriyas - the organs of action - are
being described.

Both for the Virat and individual being, speech and hands are
denoted by "jha" and "bha" resply. "gha", ".dha" and "dha"
denote resply feet, anus and genitals.

{".s" in [Shiva-9] denotes Tamasic guna, while  "n in
[Shiva-8] denotes higher level activities.       -- Himanshu }

{\skt ja ba ga .da da "s }                            [Shiva-10]

{\skt "srotratva~nnayanaghraa.najihvaa dhiindriyapa"ncakam |}
{\skt sarve.saamapi jantuunaamiirita.m jabaga.dada"s      ||} (21)

This suutra denotes the equivalence of five sense organs -
ears, skin, eyes, nose, tongue - and "ja", "ba", etc.
Note the close relation between nose and tongue on one side
and ".da" and "da" on the other.

{Ending "s denotes that these are having rajasic guna.
                                                  -- Himanshu}

{\skt kha pha cha .tha tha ca .ta ta v }              [Shiva-11]

{\skt praa.naadipa"ncaka.m caiva mano |}
{\skt babhuuva kaara.natvena khaphacha.thathaca.tat v    ||} (22)

{\skt vargadvitiyavar.notthaa.h praa.naadyaa.h pa"nca vaayava.h |}
{\skt madhyavargatrayaajaataa anta.hkara.nav.rttaya.h     ||} (23)

Thus the five-tuple of Pranas and  manas,  buddhi, ahamkara -
these eight are denoted by "kha", "pha", etc.

The five Pranas are denoted by the five syllables at the 2nd
position in Vargas - ka, pa, ca, .ta and ta.

>From the three middle Vargas - ca .ta ta - the movements of
the antahkarana - manas, buddhi and ahamkara.

{The ending "v" denotes that these are related to "water", i.e.,
consciousness.                                        -- Himanshu}

{\skt ka pa y }                                       [Shiva-12]

{\skt prak.rti.m caiva sarve.saameva sammatam |}
{\skt sambhuutamiti vij~neya.m kapay syaaditi ni"scitam ||} (24)

"ka" is Prakriti and "pa" is Purusha.

{Ending "y" denotes that these  are related to "vayu", i.e.,
movements of mind - creation.                        -- Himanshu}

{\skt "sa .sa sa r}                                   [Shiva-13]

{\skt satva.m rajastama iti gu.naanaa.m tritaya.m puraa |}
{\skt samaa"sritya mahaadeva.h "sa.sasar kriidati prabhu.h ||} (25)

{\skt "sakaaraadraajasodbhuuti.h .sakaaraattaamasodbhava.h |}
{\skt sakaaraatsatvasa.mbhuutiriti trigu.nasa.mbhava.h    ||} (26)

In the begining of the Creation, Shiva played around with the
three gunas - satvas, rajas and  tamas.

"sa denotes rajas, .sa tamas and sa satvas. The three gunas
were generated out of these three syllables.

{Ending "r" denotes agni, i.e. analytical thinking.  -- Himanshu}

{\skt ha l }                                          [Shiva-14]

{\skt tatvaatiita.h para.h saak.sii sarvaanugrahavigraha.h |}
{\skt ahamaatmaa paro hal syaamiti "sa.mbhustirodadhe    ||} (27)

Generator of all attributes, but Himself beyond any attributes,
the Ultimate Reality, the Witness, whose form gives all kinds
of favours, "I am Paramatma" - saying thus, after teaching
the Knowledge to the Sanakadi Rishis through sounding of the
drum, Shiva vanished.

"ha" denotes Shiva himself - that is the posiiton of

{Ending "l" denotes basis, i.e. this is how we human beings
understand Creation.                                -- Himanshu}

{\skt iti nandike"svarak.rtaa kaa"sikaa samaaptaa ||}

-- Himanshu.

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