[Advaita-l] Adhyaropa-Apavada Nyaya.

kuntimaddi sadananda kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Fri Feb 11 22:30:06 CST 2011

Shree Siva Senaani Nori - PraNAms
First anvaya vyatireka logic is directly relevant to anumaana vaakyam style. 
The logic is used to separate nithya from anitya vastu and is commonly used in Vedanta - Sureswara discusses this exhaustively in the 3rd Chapter which is devoted to mahaavaakya vichaara. and Shree Vidyaranya also discusses this in the very first chapter of Pancadasi. 
Anvaya involves - one is the other is. 
vyatireka involves - one is not the other is not. 
This logic is used to discriminate what has dependent existence and what has independent existence. 
Apply this to ring and gold - stating from ring - for anvaya - - ring is (assuming that it is made of gold), gold is. since wherever ring is there gold must be there since it is the cause itself manifested as effect. The relation between cause and effect is taadaatmya sambandha.
Now apply vyatireka - Rind is not, but gold is still there in the sense if I melt the ring, ring form disappears but gold still exists but in a deferent form. Therefore vyatireka is not valid. 
>From this we establish that existence of gold is independent of being a ring while the existence of ring depends on the existence of gold.
We can start from gold reference - gold is, ring is; and gold is not ring is not. In this reference we establish first both are interdependent. The application then from the ring point then establishes firmly that ring is dependent on the gold but gold does not depend on ring.
In the neti neti - when applying to the pancakoshas - starting from myself - I am there, body is there, I am not there body is not there. - both anvaya and vyatireka works - establishing the interdependence at this stage.
Then starting from body - body is there I am there and body is not three I am still there as in deep sleep state. This establishes it is the body that depends on me but I am self-existing entity. 
This is what is involved in tvam padaartha vicaara to establish that I am pure existence-consciousness independent of BMI.
One can perhaps come up with hetu and saadhya and vyaapti out of this - but there is no need to complicate that much - since simple application would do.
Hope this helps
Hari Om!

--- On Fri, 2/11/11, Siva Senani Nori <sivasenani at yahoo.com> wrote:

I was just thinking that after studying tarkabhAshA I am getting some hang of 
nyAya, but I was unable to understand the above statement of yours. Could you 
please explain the sense in which you use 'anvaya vyatireka' - specifically, if 
you are using tarka terminology 

a) what is the sAdhya here?
b) what is the vyApti?
c) what is the hetu?  
d) what is the paksha?, and
e) how does parArthAnumAna get established in this case?

If you are not using the expression as used by tArkikas, I am keen to know how 
else it is used.

Best regards
N. Siva Senani

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