[Advaita-l] Vikalpa, Savikalpa, and Nirvikalpa

vinayaka ns brahmavadin at gmail.com
Wed Aug 22 01:17:55 CDT 2012

On Wed, Aug 22, 2012 at 11:28 AM, श्रीमल्ललितालालितः <
lalitaalaalitah at gmail.com>
> On Wed, Aug 22, 2012 at 10:05 AM, vinayaka ns <brahmavadin at gmail.com>
> wrote:
> > Even in the vichAra mArga,  akhaNDAkAra vritti is indispensable for
> > dispelling is avidyA, is it not?
> >
> Yes, akhaNDAkAra-vR^itti is needed.
> > If yes, what is the distinction between the akhaNDAkAra vritti and vritti
> > obtained in the nirvikalpa samAdhi?
> >
> There is no vR^itti in nirvikalpa-samAdhi.
> ======================


This is a news to me.

How do you then explain the following words of the sampradAya AchAryas?


54. And, when by sravana and manana the mind develops a firm and undoubted
conviction, and dwells constantly on the thus ascertained Self alone, it is
called unbroken meditation (nididhyasana).

55. When the mind gradually leaves off the ideas of the meditator and the
act of meditation and is merged in the sole object of meditation. (viz.,
the Self), and is steady like the flame of a lamp in a breezeless spot, it
is called the super-conscious state (samadhi).

*56. Though in samadhi there is no subjective cognition of the mental
function having the Self as its object, its continued existence in that
state is inferred from the recollection after coming out of samadhi.*

57. The mind continues to be fixed in Paramatman in the state of samadhi as
a result of the effort of will made prior to its achievement and helped by
the merits of previous births and the strong impression created through
constant efforts (at getting into samadhi).

58. The same idea Sri Krishna pointed out to Arjuna in various ways e.g.,
when he compares the steady mind to the flame of a lamp in a breezeless

59. As a result of this (nirvikalpa) samadhi millions of results of
actions, accumulated in this beginningless world over past and present
births, are destroyed, and pure dharma (helpful to the realisation of
Truth) grows.


197. Absorption without self-consciousness (nirvikalpa samAdhi) is the
total mergence in Brahman, the One without a second, of the mental state
which has assumed Its form, the distinction of knower, knowledge, and the
object of knowledge being in this case obliterated.

198. Then just as when salt has been dissolved in water it is no longer
perceived separately, and the water alone remains, similarly the mental
state that has assumed the form of Brahman, the One without a second, is no
longer perceived, and only Self remains.

tatashchAsya sushupteshcha abhEdashankA na bhavati| ubhayatra vrityabhAnE
samAnE api tat sadbhAva-asadbhAvamAtrENA anayoH bhEdOpapatteH||

199. *Therefore there is no apprehension of its being identical with the
state of deep-sleep. For, though the mental state appears in neither, YET,
the difference between them lies in this that it exists in the nirvikalpa
samAdhi, but in deep sleep it does not*.

Tr. by Swami Nikhilananda.

gauDapAda and shankara:

Relevant mandukya karakas and shAnkara bhAshya:

III. 34 The behavior that the mind has when it is under control, free from
all ideation, and full of discrimination, should be particularly noted. The
behavior of the mind in deep sleep is different and is not similar to that
(of controlled mind).

prachAraH, the behavior, that there is; manasaH, of the mind; nigruhItasya,
which is (thus) under control; nirvikalpasya, which is free from all
ideation; dhImataH, which is full of discrimination; saH that behavior;
vijnEyaH, is to be particularly noted by the yOgis.

Objection: In the absence of all kinds of awareness, the mind under control
behaves in the same way as the mind in deep sleep. Hence the absence of
awareness being the same, what is there to be particularly noted?

With regard to our answer is: The objection is untenable, since the
behavior of the mind sushupte, in deep sleep; is anyaH, different; the mind
being then under the cover of darkness of delusion arising from ignorance,
and it being still possessed of the latent tendencies that are the seeds of
many evil actions. And the behavior of the mind under control is surely
different, since, ignorance, the seed of evil activities, has been burnt
away from that mind by the fire of realization of the Truth that is the
Self, and since from that mind has been removed blemish of all afflictions.
Hence the sleeping mind’s behavior na tatsamaH, is not like that behavior
(in the controlled state). Therefore it is fit to be known this is the

35. *For that mind loses itself in sleep, but does not lose itself when
under control. That very mind becomes the fearless Brahman, possessed of
the light of consciousness all around. *
Best Wishes,


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