[Advaita-l] Why jagat cannot but be mithyaa?
kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Wed Jan 18 22:36:37 CST 2012
Why jagat cannot but be mithyaa?
We present simple logical arguments, supported by scriptures.
1. Brahman is infinite – the very word indicates that too.
2. Infinite cannot have parts, by definition. Hence it is sajaati, vijaati, swagata bheda rahitam. This is provided by scriptural support – sat eve soumya idam agra asiit – ekam eva adivitiiyam. Three words ekam, eva, advitiiyam, all essentially imply the same but still used to negate all the three possible bhedas stated above.
3. Infinite cannot be a cause for creation since creation involves modification and infinite cannot undergo modification – again by definition.
4. Yet we see creation – who sees – the one who is part of the creation sees the creation and wants to know why, wherefrom and so on – or what is the cause for creation (material, instrumental, intelligent causes).
5. Cause cannot be other than Brahman since it is advitiiyam – Therefore Brahman has to be abhinna nimitta, karaNa, upaadana kaaraNa – at the same time Brahman also cannot be the cause for creation, it being infinite.
6. Creation cannot be separate from Brahman – if so Brahman ceases to be Brahman.
7. Creation cannot be part of Brahman, since Brahman cannot have parts, being infinite.(note even infinite is only defining that it is not finite since infinite otherwise cannot be defined – only finites can be defined and the definition involves attributive description to differentiate one finite from the other – Brahman cannot have attributes, being infinite).
8. The scriptures solve this puzzle about creation – by given three examples in Ch. Up – sat vidya. We take only one here.
9. Just as gold becoming ornaments – where gold remains as gold yet varities of ornaments are created – Ring, Bangle, bracelet, etc. There is no separate bangly substance or ringly substance or braceletty substance – all are nothing but gold. The varieties are only names for different forms (attributes) – the substantive for all is gold which does not undergo any transformation. This transformation-less transformation is called – vaachaarambhanam vikaaro naamadheyam – or namkevaste creation – or no real creation but apparent creation – since gold ALONE is real – lohamiti EVA satyam – the eva is emphasized to indicate that the changing names are not absolutely real – what is real is the changeless entity – gold – it was gold, it is gold and it will be gold. Ring can become a bangle or bracelet – these changes do not affect the substantive gold. These relative examples are given to convince the student, Swetaketu, to inquire
further in terms of application to creation and the cause – since knowing the cause, substantially (essentially) one knows all the products since they are nothing cause itself (gold itself) in different names and forms. Hence emphasis is not the names and forms but on the substantive – since it is substantive. No body cares for ring it is not of gold!
10. Names (ring, bangle, bracelet etc – have different attributes, utilities, etc. Hence Goupapaada says utility, experiencability, transactability, singly or collectively cannot be criterion for reality – same applies to all dream objects – as long as dream last they are real but once awakened the reality attributed to dream world is gone. The millions I have in my dream bank are useless for the waking world and the millions in the banks in the waking world are useless in my dream world.
11. The reality on the absolute scale is the nityatam – changeless eternal entity – which can only be Brahman and not the names and forms superimposed on Brahman.
Hence we can now define what is real, unreal and apparently real.
Real is that which never undergoes a change – in the relative examples gold is more real than ring and bangle – One has to recognize the ontological differences to appreciate the creation and the material cause. In chemistry we write equation balancing left side and the right side – what is conserved is material which cannot undergo a change. Law of conservation rests on this. This is extended by Lord Krishna to very existence it self in B.G II-16 – an absolute law of conservation – naasato vidyate bhaavo naabhaavo vidyate sataH. That existence is cause for creation too is stated in Ch. Up as quoted above. – That existence is aatma that you are – is the final conclusion of that chapter – since the essence of everything is nothing but that sat which you are – aitadaatmyamidagam sarvam tat satyam sa aatmaa – tat tvam asi. which is repeated 9 times to make sure we get this message.
Unreal or asat is that which has no existence – classical example is vandhyaa putraH.
Now the creation cannot come under real since it is changing but not unreal since it is experienced as in the case of dream world or even snake that one sees where there is really rope. It cannot be unreal since it is experienced. It cannot be real since it undergoes a change – hence is only relatively real in contrast that absolute real or satyasya satyam – which does not undergo a change. This is simple logic and failure to recognize the difference between the relative reality and absolute reality is not fault of the scriptures or the logic.
Hence we do need a term to differentiate this intermediate case – it is called either relatively real or transactionally real or vyaavahaarika satyam but not absolutely real – hence the word mithyaa. But any mithyaa involves a substantive which is real or absolutely real which is conserved in all apparent transactions or transformations as in the case of gold in ornaments.
Advaita Vedanta involves three fundamental aspects – all are equally important.
1. Brahma satyam
2. Jagat mithyaa
3. jiiva brahma eva na aparaH
These follows the scriptural statements, logical deduction and the experience of there states - waking state, dream state and deep sleep states which are all relatively real to differentiate that which is absolutely real – called turiiyam – caturtam manyante – and that which is prapanchopasham – where all the three worlds or three states merge into and shantam, shivam, advaitam – which need to be inquired into and realized – sa vijneyaH.
End of discussion.
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