[Advaita-l] Iswara Darshanam -3
kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Mon Dec 2 06:30:28 CST 2013
Iswara Darshanam – 3
The 11th Chapter of Geeta starts with Arjuna’s desire to see Iswara in all His Glory. In the first two slokas, he summarizes his clear understanding of the Lord and the self. Hence the first two slokas can be considered the essence of Lord’s teaching up to the 10th Chapter.
madanugrahAya paramam guhyamadhyAtma sanjnitam|
yattvayOktam vachastena mOhO2yam vigatomama|| 11-1
madanugrahAya – to bless me, tvayA – by you, yat paramam guhyam = that which is supremely sacred and secret, adhyAtma sanjnitam – about the absolute truth, vacaH uktam – taught elaborately, and , tena - by that teaching, mama ayam mohaH – this delusion of mine, vigataH = is gone.
bhavApyayou hi bhUtANAm shrutou vistarashO mayA|
tattvataH kamalapatrAsksha mAhAtmyamapi chAvyayam|| 11-2
kamalpatrAksha – Oh! Lotus-leaf-eyed one, hi – indeed, mayA- by me, tattvataH – from you, BhutAnAm – of all beings (and matter), bhavApyayou – that are born, tattvataH – from you, vistarataH – elaborately, shrutou – I have listened (to the teaching). cha – and, avyayam – in destructible, mAhAtmyam – glories, api (shroutou) – also have listened.
The entire Bhagavat Geeta is considered as the explanation of the mahAvAkya, the aphoristic statement- tat tvam asi. The first 6 chapters are centered on the description of tvam padArtham, while the chapters 7-12 deals with tat padArtham and remaining six chapters deals with the –asi – the relation between the two. Shankara says this is the essence of Geeta which he calls it as samyak darshanam, seeing the oneness that pervades all. In the first sloka of the 11Ch. Arjuna summaries the essential teaching that he has gained of the first six chapters and in the second sloka he summaries the teaching of 7 to 10 chapters. This is from Arjuana’s point. Lord Krishna analyzed the tvam pada vaachyaartha and lakshyaartha, the direct meaning and the implied meaning in the chapters 2-6. (The first chapter is mostly the introduction of the student and his state of mind). The chapters 2-6 point out the tvam pada lakshyArtha or indicatary meaning that differs
from the direct usage meaning or vAchyArtha of tvam.
That tvam is different from the physical body, is indicated in the sloka
dEhI nityamavadhyO2yam dEhE sarvasya bhArata|
tasmAt sarvANi bhUtAni na tvam shOchitu marhasi|| 2-30
The self, which is embodied, is eternal and indestructible in all bodies while the bodies continuously undergo change and destruction; therefore there is no reason for you to cry.
In the third chapter, the self or aatma is pointed to be beyond or different from the pancakoshas or five sheaths or Atma is pancakosha vilakshaNam, yet enlivening all the koshas or sheaths. Hierarchy in the order of reality or importance is being pointed out in the sloka.
indriyANi parANyAhuH indriyEbhyaH param manaH|
masastu parA buddhiH buddhEH paratastu saH|| 3-42.
That aatma the self is akarthaa or non-doer in spite of all the doing that takes place in its mere presence is stated in Ch. 4
karmaNyakarma yaH pasyet, akarmaNi cha karmayaH|
sa buddhimAn manuShyEShu sa yuktaH kRitsna karmakRit|| 4-18
In the 5th chapter Atam or the self is said to reside in the body with 9 gates, and it is neither a doer nor cause others to act.
navadvArE purE dEhI naiva kurvan na kArayan| 5-13
naiva kinchit karOmIti yuktO manyEta tatvavit 5-8
The wise knows that he is never a doer while all the actions are being done at jnaanedriyas and karmendriyas.
In the 6th chapter it is pointed out that the jnaani understands that the self is the self in all and all in his own self.
sarvabhUtastam AtmAnam sarvabhUtAni ca Atmani|
Thus in all the Chapters 2-6, the indicatory meaning of tvam padartham has been pointed out. While this is the essential part of the teaching, there are several other aspects discussed which come under avantara vishayANi or secondary importance. This includes Karma yoga too, since some aspects of karma yoga have been discussed in the purva khAnDa or karma khAnDa. Hence Shankara points out the jnaana yoga is the main topic of the chapters (tatparyam) even though karmayoga is extensively discussed, since there is no apUrvata or no newness in the topic. (See Shankara BhAShya for Ch. 3, introduction)
In the chapters 7 and 9 the tat padartha is exhaustively discussed. In essence Iswara is defined as that from which the whole world arises, sustains, and goes back into. That is He is sRiShTi, sthithi and laya kAraNam. That in fact provides the definition of Iswara. All religions stop at Iswara or God as intelligent cause for the universe, while Vedanta defines him, as Shankara puts it – abhinna nimitta upAdAna kAraNam –He is both the intelligent and material cause, and yet he is kaarya-kAraNa vilakshaNam Brahman, he is beyond any cause-effect relationships. Thus, he is the cause for creation, and yet he as Brahman is beyond the cause-effect relationships. This is being pointed in the slokas that says – mastAni sarva bhUtAni – all beings are in Me and at the same time – na cha mastAni bhUtAni – no beings are in Me. Iswara is defined as parA prakRiti while the apara prakRiti constitute all the pachabhutas. This is pointed in Ch. 7 in slokas
bhUmirApO2nalovAyuH…. and aparEyamitastvanyAm… slokas 4 and 5.
Arjuna says in the first sloka of Ch.11 –madanugrahAya- to bless me, adhyaatma sanjnitam – about the absolute truth that indicates (lakshyArttha)- the identity of the jiiva and Iswara, the individual and the Lord, which is paramam guhyam – which is the most sacred and secret. It is sacred in the sense that is the ultimate knowledge knowing which there is nothing more to know, and it is secret since no one believes if it this truth is told since for many their minds are not prepared enough to recognize this absolute fact – manushyAnAm sahasreShu…. Of the thousands of people, very few are ready to listen, says Krishna. Arjuna here acknowledges and says you have provided that supreme secret teaching because of which all my delusion has been eliminated. Illusion is appearance of one into many. Delusion is taking this apparent plurality as reality. Hence removal of delusion involves recognizing that the plurality that is perceived is not real but
the reality is that which supports that plurality. The teaching that provides this understanding is parmama guhyam adhyaamta sanjnitam – the most sacred and secret teaching that involves the absolute truth, since it eliminated my delusion, says Arjuna.
Thus Arjuna acknowledges that he has received the essential teaching of the Lord who taught this supreme knowledge out of compassion to bless him, madanugrahAya.
To be continued.
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