[Advaita-l] Iswara Darshanam - 6

Sujal Upadhyay sujal.u at gmail.com
Mon Dec 9 02:25:12 CST 2013





Verses containing the word 'padam' are 2.51, 8.11, 15.4, 15.5, 18.56

In BG 8.11, achArya-s explain the meaning of the word 'pada' (पद) or
'padaM' / 'pada.m (पदं).

*Note: ** 'pada' (**पद) **or 'padaM' / 'pada.m (**पदं) - **note the
difference is anusvAra (dot) above the word pada in second spelling. This
is denoted in transliteration as '.m' or 'M'*

Sri RAmAnuja explains us the meaning of 'pada' as, 'What is attained by the
mind as its goal is called 'pada''

Sri MAdhavA explains us the meaning of 'pada' as, 'Since the aspirants
attain that consciousness it is known as pada.m' and '

Full commentary of the verse is :

*The ultimate goal to be attained is explained by Lord Krishna in this
verse. Since the aspirants attain that consciousness it is known as padam
or state and once that state is reached it is designated by the word
'visanti' meaning to enter. The Narada Purana states: That the ultimate
goal to be attained is Lord Krishna is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures.
Since that consciousness is achieved by the ascetics, it is known as padam.*

*Now begins the summation.*

*Brahmacarya or voluntary celibacy for spiritual purposes denotes attuning
one's consciousness in full devotion to the Supreme Lord excluding
everything else.*

Source <http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-08-11.html>

Sri Sridhara Svami explains akshara as praNava OM.

Lord Krishna speaks this verse with a view to instruct how the preceding
practice is based on the sacred syllable OM which is the most dearest and
nearest [1] transcendental sound vibration of the Supreme Lord.

Sanskrit commentary is

'केवलादभ्यासयोगादपि प्रणवाधारमभ्यासमन्तरङ्गं विधित्सुः प्रतिजानीते --
यदक्षरमिति।' . If we split the verse we get

केवल-अभ्यासयोगः-अपि प्रणव-आधार-अभ्यास-अन्तरंग विधि-अस्तु- प्रतिजानिते

[1] The word antaranga can be defined as antar-anga. Antar means 'inner'
and anga means 'organ'.  In reference to context with BG 7.8, we can take
that OM is the closest to ParamAtmA. By meaning closest, it is verily the
ParamAtmA. We hear the word 'antaranga-bhakta'

We all know that OM represents nirguNa brahman. Bhagvan in Gita says 'I am
OM' (BG 7.8)

The purpose of commentary is to give more clarity of the verse. Here, no
acharya has mentioned pada as loka or as Vaikuntha, nor do the references
made to Br. Up. mention Vaikuntha. The question is why didn't they mention
the word vaikuntha, refuted advaita and shaivism.

Sri Adi Shankara mentions the pada, which is the goal, is neither gross,
nor subtle, indicating that Brahman is beyond description.

Sri Adi Shankara and Sri Abhinava Gupta mentions pada as 'the goal'

Commentaries on 15.4 and 15.5 do not describe of any pada as loka, neither
it mentions Shiva as anya-devata.

English translation of MAdhavAchArya, as found
contains extra words:

*...the Vedic aphorism neti neti meaning it is not this, it is not that
clarifies what is the unmanifest. Realising that the Supreme Lord Krishna
is the seperate and distinct from all else is what makes Him clearly
superior and paramount. He is the primal Supreme Lord, the only progenitor.
All created beings including Brahma, Shiva, Indra and all the 300 million
demigods are nothing but emantions from Him like rays of sunlight from the

However, the sanskrit commentary, as available on Gita Super
does not say mention the word Shiva.

*Sanskrit commentary by Sri Madhvacharya *

तदर्थं च तमेव प्रपद्ये प्रपद्येत। तच्चोक्तं तत्रैव "तं वै प्रपद्येत यं वै
प्रपद्य न शोचति न हृष्यति न जायते न म्रियते तद्ब्रह्म मूलं तच्छित्सुः"
दृष्टश्च प्रतिबुद्धो भवेत्पुमान्' इति च मोक्षधर्मे। छेदनोपायो
ह्यत्राकाङ्क्षितः न च भगवतोऽन्यः शरण्योऽस्ति ।।15.4।।

साधनान्तरमाह -- 'निर्मानेति' ।।15.5।।

While commenting on BG 18.46, none of the acharya-s talk of Vaikuntha. Sri
Ramanuja talks of 'शाश्वतं पदम् अव्ययम्' (SASvata.m padam avyayam), which
could be connected with BG 15.4.

Hence we can conclude that none of the Vaishnava acharya-s say that the
param pada is Vishnu-loka (heavenly planet or heavenly kingdom of Lord
Vishnu) which is Vaikuntha. Pada or Parampada, 'reach Me' etc has to be
taken as a state of as MAdhavAchArya says 'consciousness'.

Kena Upanishad says that ...Indra excelled than other Gods as he was the
first *to know *that 'I am Brahman' (4.2-4.3)

BG 3.35 uses the word 'to know' (GYAna chakShu means eye of knowledge,
which is nothing but knowledge itself.

BG 9.11 and 9.13 also asks us to know. BG 10.2 says that even demi-gods and
great sages do not know my true nature.

Ch. Up. VII-xxv-2 also uses the word 'to know'.

Nowhere it is mentioned 'to see'.

It is interesting to note that none of the acharya-s have connected with
BhAgavat PUrANa (Srimad BhAgavatam -SB).

 contd. ...

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