[Advaita-l] ETHICS OF MIMAMSA
kamesh_ccmb at yahoo.co.in
Wed Jun 26 01:10:50 EDT 2019
Mantras, Brdhmanas and Aranyakas constitute the Veda. Mantra or Samhita part contains the formula which have to be recited at the time of sacrifices. Brdhmanas are the elaborate rules to be observed and the procedural details to be followed in the sacrifices. Aranyakas, especially their end parts i.e., upanishads contain the philosophical speculations. The former two are together called Karmakhanda or action part, as they deal with the ritual activity. Upanisads are called Jnanakhanda or Knowledge-part, as they deal with the philosophical understanding of reality and knowledge.
Vatsayana explains that when Putrakamesti sacrifice (Ref: Dasaradha’s Yaga in Aydohya) is performed by a couple, they should give birth to a son. Here, the couple being the agents, the sacrifice being the means, their connection with the sacrifice is the act. The results may not accrue due to the deficiency in any of the factors. The agents might be immoral or the materials offered might not be properly consecrated or the mantra might not be properly recited or any other deficiency might be pertaining to the whole sacrificial act. The results would not come along even if the act of procreation itself is defective. If everything is all right, the result is accomplished.
When the sacrifice is said to bring about the son's birth, it does not mean that there is any such positive and negative correlation between the son's birth and the sacrifice as 'whenever the sacrifice is performed the son is born' or 'whenever the sacrifice is not performed the son is not born'. What is meant is that the scripture lays down that the sacrifice only assists in the son's birth. If the son is born without performing sacrifice, it can be assumed that the son is born as a result of sacrifice performed in the previous birth. If the son is not born even after the performance of the sacrifice, it must be assumed that the potency raised by the sacrifice is neutralized by some unseen obstruction
The Vedic actions are devided into Nitya (unconditional duties), Naimittika
(occassional duties) and Kamyabda karmas (desired actions for a particular result). Performance of everyday sandhya is an unconditional Nitya karma: sacrifice on lunar or solar eclipse is an instance of occassional Naimittika karma, sacrifice for attaining son or cattle is an instance of Kamyabda karma. In the case of the former two, there is no specific desire as a motive. They are rather part of one's adherence to one's Duty. There is no option regarding these actions. There is an option in the case of Kamya karmas as they are binding only when the agents has a desire to be accomplished. However, the three kinds of actions are supposed to be virtuous because they are equally prescribed by the Veda. The Vedic injunctions give rise to an impulse in the mind of the agent to perform the enjoined act. The impulse or impact is known as 'Bhavana'. The Bhavana prompts one to action. Bhavana stands for the psychological process intervening the cognition of duty and actually discharging it. It is of two kinds Arthi and Sabdi. Arthi Bhavana is referred by the injunctive affix of the word 'yajeta' which urges the agent to put forth his efforts towards a definite act. Sabdi Bhavana is what accompanies i.e., the verbal prompting from the injunction.
Learned Members , please contribute your views
Sri Guru Padaravindarpana Mastu
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