gmadras at ENGR.UCDAVIS.EDU
Fri Mar 14 16:08:10 CST 1997
Among the dharma sastras, the apastamba dharma suutra is very well
known. According to the modern "scholars", the dharma suutra was written
approx. in 600-300 BC i.e before the arthasastra of Kaulitya (Chanakya)
but after the oldest of all dharma suutras, Baudhayana. Some argue that
apastamba and Baudhayana were contemporaries.
Though the apastamba dharma suutra gives the rules for right
conduct in daily life, and methods to conduct rituals, it also provides
'prAyashchitta' for most of the wrong-doings. It also emphasies an
arrested person is 'innocent until proven guilty.' It also talks in detail
about the usefulness of meditation in daily life.
Shankaraacharya considered it important enough to write a
wonderful commentary on this patala. Shankara also quotes from the
apastamba dharma suutra in His brahma suutra bhashya.
The following is the adhyatma patala of apastamba dharma suutra.
In total, there are 14 verses, running from 220.127.116.11-8 to 18.104.22.168-6.
Shankara notes (in his commentary) that verses 22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199 are
verses from the upanishhad-s, which have been lost by his time. Prof.
Mayeda remarks that some words in this section are similar to those in the
Kathaka upanishhad.h and thus could have been a part of that upanishhad.h
I have largely followed the translation by Trevor Leggett in his book
'The chapter of the Self.' Though Trevor remarks that his is the first
translation of the work, I have read atleast one book called, 'Yoga of
right living for self-realisation : Adhyatma patala of Apastamba dharma
sutra with Adi Sankara bhashya.' Trevor Leggett also have provided various
other references regarding the authencity of this work.
Hope you enjoy these verses, as much as I did. Shankara's commentary, of
course, make these verses more meaningful !! Namaste.
adhyaatmikaan.h yogaan.h anutishhThennyaayasa.nhitaan anaishchaarikaan.h || 1||
Let a man practice in the approved way the yoga of the Self, which make
the mind steady.
aatmalaabhaanna paraM vidyate || 2||
There is nothing higher than the Self.
tatraatmalaabhiiyaa.nshlokaan.h udaaharishhyaamaH || 3||
For that purpose, we quote some verses which bring attainment of Self.
puuH praaNinaH sarva eva guhaashayasya |
ahanyamaanasya vikalmashhasya |
achalaM chalaniketaM ye.anutishhThanti te amR^itaaH || 4||
Every living being is the city belonging to the one lying at rest
in the cave. Indestructible, taintless, the unmoving abiding in the moving.
Those who practice realization of it become immortal.
shyadidamidihaidiha loke vishhayaM uchyate |
vidhuuya kaviretad.h anutishhThed.h guhaashayam.h || 5||
This indeed which here in this world and here in that world is called
the object. Having shaken himself free from it, let the seer devote
himself to that which lies in the cave.
aatmannevaahamalabdhvaitad.h dhitaM sevasva naahitam.h |
shathaanyeshhu pratiichchhaami saadhushhThaanamanapekshayaa |
mahaantaM tejasaH kaayaM sarvatra nihitaM prabhum.h || 6||
(pupil) `Not in the Self have I attained it. Now in other things will
I seek that place of the good, by detachment.`
(teacher) `Devote yourself to your welfare, not to your harm. (It is) great,
a mass of splendor, all-pervading, the Lord.`
sarvabhuuteshhu yo nityo vipashchidamR^ito dhruvaH |
anaN^go.ashabdo.ashariiro.asparshashcha mahaa.nshuchiH |
sa sarvaM paramaa kaashhThaa sa vaishhuvataMvishhuvat.h sa
vai vaibhaajanaM puram.h || 7||
He who is constant in all beings, wise, immortal, firm, without limbs,
without sound, without body, without touch, great, pure - He is all,
the highest goal, he is in the center, he divides, he is the city.
shtaM yo.anutishhThet.h sarvatra praadhvaM chaasya sadaa aacharet.h |
durdarshaM nipuNaM yukto yaH pashyet.h sa modeta vishhTape || 8||
The yogi who practices realization of That in everything, and always holds
to firmness in That, will see that which is hard to see and subtle and
rejoice in heaven.
shaatman.h pashyan.h sarvabhuutaani na muhyech chintayan.h kaviH |
aatmaanaM chaiva sarvatra yaH pashyet.h sa vai brahmaa naakapR^ishhThe
viraajati || 1||
The seer meditating, seeing everything in the Self, will not be deluded.
And whoever sees the Self alone in everything, He is Brahman, glorious in
the highest heaven.
nipuNo.aNiiyaan.h bisorNaayaa yaH sarvaM aavR^itya tishhThati |
varshhiiyaa.nshcha pR^ithivyaa dhruvaH sarvaM aarabhya tishhThati |
sa indriyairjagato.asya GYaanaadanyo.ananyasya GYeyaat.h parameshhThii
vibhaajaH | tasmaat.h kaayaaH prabhavanti sarve sa muulaM shaashvatikaH sa
nityaH || 2||
Subtle, finer than a lotus-fibre, he stands covering all. Greater than the
earth, firm, he stands supporting all. He is other than the sense-knowledge
of this world. The world is not different from him, who is ever standing
as the supreme, who is to be known, who himself divides into many.
For him the bodies all come forth, he is the root, eternal, he is constant.
doshhaaNaaM tu vinirghaato yogamuula iha jiivite |
nirhR^itya bhuutadaahiiyaan.h kshemaM gachchhati paNDitaH || 3||
Yoga is the basis for destruction of the doshas here in this life.
Having thrown off these which torment beings, the wise one (paNDita) attains
atha bhuutadaahiiyaan.h doshhaan.h udaaharishhyaamaH || 4||
Now we exemplify the doshas which torment beings.
krodho harshho roshho lobho moho dambho droho mR^ishhodyam.h
atyaashapariivaadaavasuuyaa kaamamanyuu anaatmyamayogasteshhaaM |
yogamuulo nirghaataH || 5||
Anger, thrill, irritation, greed, delusion, self-display, spite,
false speech, over-eating, back-biting, jealousy, lust and hate, loss
of self-possession, absence of yoga. These are shaken off by yoga.
aarjavaM maardavaM shamo damaH sarvabhuutairavirodho yoga aaryam.h
aanR^isha.nsaM tushhTiriti sarvaashramaaNaaM |
samayapadaani taany anutishhThan.h vidhinaa saarvagaamii bhavati || 6||
Freedom from anger, freedom from thrill, non-irritaion, freedom from
greed, being without delusion or self-display or spite, truth-speaking,
moderate diet, no back-biting, freedom from jealousy, sharing with others,
giving up, straightforwardness, gentleness, calm, control, the yoga which
has no conflict with any being, nobility, kindness, contentment - these
apply to all stages of life. Practicing them in the approved way, one
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