Vaidya N. Sundaram sundaram at ECN.PURDUE.EDU
Mon Apr 20 14:04:20 CDT 1998

Sri GurubhyO namah:

 As Sri. Giri had just raised a question about mumukshutva`s in an earlier
mail, I quote Sri Shankara from the VivekachudAmani. Explanations are by
Sri Chandrasekara Bharati, a former pontiff of the Sringeri mutt. Sri
Shankara talks about mumukshutvas in verses 28 and 29; however, he refers
to other qualities from verses 22 onwards. I quote briefly only from verse
26. If it is incomplete, do forgive me. I will try and quote those other
verses also in later posts.
Verse 26:
 sAstrasya guruvAkyasya satyabuddhyAvadhAraNA |
 sA SraddhA kathitA sadbhih: yayA vastUpalabyate ||

 Ascertainment of the scripture and f the words of the guru with coniction
about their truth is called "SraddhA" by the good and as that by which
knowledge of Reality is obtained.

Even in the physical world, in the absence of faith in the words of an
authority and trustworthy person, no man acts in accordance with them in
the matter of inquiry. When this is so with reference to objects of
sense-perception, what needs to be said in the case of meaning of
scripture which is beyond sense perception. Hence "SraddhA" is the supreme
means to inquiry about what is super sensuous. One without conviction and
without sAdhana will not get to the Truth. So, to exclude one who has not
that qualification, this first requisite is mentioned as SraddhA with
respect to the words of the Guru and Vedanta.
Verse 27:
 samyagAsthApanam buddheH Suddhe brahmaNi sarvada |
 tat samAdhAnamityuktam na tu cittasya lAlanam ||

 The perfect establishment of the buddhi always in nirguna brahman is said
to be samAdhAna, not the indulgence of the mind.

Here samAdhAna is described as the process of fixing the buddhi of firm
conviction always in the pure, i.e., nirguNa Brahman permanently. By this
reference is made to the antaHkaraNa freed from every kind of
determination or doubt. That is why Sri BhagavatpAda used the word buddhi
of the form of decision instead of the word manas.

(Among several other explanations given I have chosen only the one above
and the one I give below for conciseness)

 na tu cittasya lAlanam: In the world, if children weep persistently,
elders pacify them by giving them what they want. This is popularly known
as lAlanam.  Similarly, here samAdhAna is not giving free rein to the mind
to stray as it pleases.

 Here, a reference is also given to the Yga VAsisTha, explaining the
importance of treating the mind as child, and employing coaxing and
pre-conditioning as opposed to precipitative action.
Verse 28:
 ahaNkArAdidehAntAn bandhAn aj~nAnakalpitAn |
 svasvarUpAvabodhena moktumicchA mumukShutA ||

 SraddhA and samAdhAna are noted as pre-requisites for mumukShutvam.
ahaNkAra can be understood in two senses. Either it is he reflection of
the antaHkarana in the body composed of the eyes, etc., producing the ego
sense (aham iti abhimAnaH).  Or, ahankAra may refer to the jIva who is the
enjoyer in the AnandamayakoSa. Sri Shankara says that ahankAra cannot be
AtmA and hence, even the feeling of being the enjoyer is a result of
aj~nAna. All the bonds arising from the AnandamayakoSa and also from the
others like vij~nAnamaya, manomaya, prANamaya and annamayakosa`s confuse
the Atman. All these bonds should be cut right through. the deep felt
desire to get rid of these bonds is mumukShuta.
 This mumukShuta is of three kinds: manda, madhyama and pravRddha; the
inferior, the middling and the well developed. Although the Atman knows
that moksha is of the nature eternal bliss, deep felt yearning is
difficult for persons whose antaHkaraNa is filled with residual
impressions of samsAra.
Verse 29:
 mandamadyamarUpApi vairAgyena samAdinA |
 prasAdena gurosseyam pravRdhhA sUyate phalam ||

 Even though it is inferior and middling, if this mumukShutA grows into
the well developed state by detachment and control of the mind and with
the grace of the guru, it bears fruit.

 In summary, SraddhA and samAdhAna are esential for mumukShuta, but not
sufficient in themselves. A deep felt desire for liberation is needed.
Although deficient, the desire for liberation can be fostered by reading
scriptures, (mandamumukShA), reasoning and meditating on the scriptures,
which may be temporary, should be followed by performance of karma without
attachment, or giving up karma by the prescribed fashion (when it is
called madhyamA) and finally a buring desire which consumes all residual
vAsanas, an unquenchable thirst for Truth and Knowledge (pravRddha or
tIvramumukShutva), and by the grace of the Guru, a disciple attains "That
by which everything else is Known".


                      Vaidya N. Sundaram
 Kandavar Vindilar      : Those who have seen (Brahman) have not spoken
  Vindavar Kandilar     :   those who speak (about It) have not seen (It)
    satyakAma, satyasaMkalpa, Apatsakha, kAkutsa, shrIman nArAyANa
        puruShottaMa, shrI ranganAtha, mama nAtha, namostute.

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