[Advaita-l] More from vedAnta paribhAShA

Jaldhar H. Vyas jaldhar at braincells.com
Wed Nov 10 12:47:44 CST 2004

Here is another excerpt from vedAnta paribhAShA which addresses some of
the other questions Girish had.

shravaNAdiShu cha mumukShuNAmadhikAraH kAmye karmaNi phalakAmasyAdhikAritvAt |
mumukShAyAM cha nityAnityavastuvivekasyehAmutrArthaphalabhogavirAgasya
shamadamoparatititikShAsamAdhAnashraddhAnA~ncha viniyogaH |
antarindrayanigraH shamaH | bahirindrayanigraho damaH | vikShepAbhAva
uparatiH | shItoShNAdidvandvasahanaM titikShA | chittekAgrayaM samAdhAnam |
gurUvedAntavAkyeShu vishvAsaH shraddhA |

And those who desire liberation have the right (adhikara) for listening
etc.[1] Only those who desire to enjoy the fruits of action have the right
to goal-centered actions.[2] To increase the desire for liberation and
discriminate between the eternal and finite, calmness, self-control,
withdrawal, fortitude, concentration, and faith are the means.  Calmness
(shama) is restraint of the inner senses [mind, ego etc.] self-control
(dama) is restraint of the outer senses [sight, smell etc.] withdrawal
(uparati) is absence from distractions, fortitude (titiksha) is the
ability to withstand the pairs of opposites [such as heat and cold.]
concentration (samadhana) is one-pointedness of the mind.  Faith
(shraddha) is the belief in the words of the Guru and Vedanta.

[1] shravana, manana, and nididhyasana as mentioned previously.

[2] Action (karma) is of three types.  Note while the shastras typically
use religious rituals as archetypes when talking of karma, everything
concerning them applies mutatis mutandis to other forms of action.  The
three types are nitya (those that are performed on a daily basis such as
sandhyavandana,) naimittika (those which are performed on a certain
occasion such as yajnopavita sanskara which is done when a Brahmana boy
enters Vedic study, or Shivaratri which is done on the 14th day of the
dark half of Magha,) both of these are done out of duty not to fulfill
a particular need, and kamya which is all those actions done to get a
particular reward (heaven, prosperity, progeny etc.) or to avoid a
particular penalty (hell, suffering, poverty etc.)  Thus I have translated
kamya as goal-centered even though a literal translation is "desirous" The
text is saying those who desire liberation should avoid the kamya karmas
and do only the nitya and naimittika ones.  This is what the Gita calls
karma yoga.

Jaldhar H. Vyas <jaldhar at braincells.com>

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