[Advaita-l] Vikalpa, Savikalpa, and Nirvikalpa

vinayaka ns brahmavadin at gmail.com
Sat Aug 25 21:32:57 CDT 2012

On Sat, Aug 25, 2012 at 3:25 PM, V Subrahmanian <v.subrahmanian at gmail.com>wrote:

> the Panchadashi is only saying 'the same goal' is attainable by 'both' the
> paths.  Since he also says that 'he really knows the meaning of the
> scriptures....' the Panchadashi is only saying that the paths of enquiry
> (which invariably requires the upAya of shravaNAdi and dhyana) and
> meditation (which invariably requires the knowledge of 'what is to be
> meditated upon  - here it is the AupaniShada Atman -) that there are not
> really two paths.  But why does it make a mention of 'two' paths?  It is
> because of the predominant nature among humans: some are 'vichAra para' and
> some are 'dhyAnapara'.



Definition of dhyAnapara according to gItAchArya and bhAshyakAra & how such
yOgi attains Brahman:

18.52 One who resorts to solitude, eats sparingly,
has speech, body and mind under control, to
whom meditation and concentration are ever the
highest (duty), and who is possessed of ispassion;

18.52 Vivikta-sevi, one who resorts to solitude, is
habituated to repairing into such solitary places as a forest, bank of a
river, mountain caves, etc.;
laghuasi, eats sparingly, is habituated to eating a
little-repairing to solitary places and eating
sparingly are nentioned here since they are the
causes of tranquillity of mind through the
elimination of defects like sleep etc.-; the person
steadfast in Knowledge, yata-vak-kaya-manasah,
who has speech, body and mind under control.
Having all his organs withdrawn thus, *dhyanayoga-*
*parah nityam, one to whom meditation and*
*concentration are ever the highest (duty)-*
*meditation is thinking of the real nature of the Self, **and concentration
is making the mind one-pointed **with regard to the Self itself; one to
whom these **meditation and concentration are the highest **(duty) is
dhyana-yoga-parah-*. Nityam, (ever) is used to indicate the absence of
other duties like repetition of mantra [A formula of prayer sacred to
any deity.-V.S.A.] etc. Samupasritah, one who is
fully possessed, i.e. ever possessed; of vairagyam, dispassion, absence of
longing for objects seen or unseen-. Further,

18.53 (That person,) having discarded egotism,
force, pride, desire, anger and superfluous
possessions, free from the idea of possession, and serene, is fit for
becoming Brahman.

18.53 (That person) vimucya, having discarded;
ahan-karam, egotism, thinking of the body, organs, etc. as the ego; balam,
force-which is associated with desire and attachment; not the other kind
of strength consisting in the fitness of the body etc., becuase being
natural it cannot be descarded-; darpam, pride, which follows elation and
leads to transgresson of righteousness-for the Smrti says, 'An elated
person becomes proud; a proud man transgresses righteousness' (Ap. Dh. Su.
1.13.4); kamam, desire; krodham, anger, aversion; parigraham, superfluous
possessions-even after removing the defects in the organs and the
mind, there arises the possibility of acceptance of gifts
either for the maintenance of the body or for
righteous duties; discarding them as well, i.e.
becoming a mendicant of the param-hamsa class; nirmamah, free from the idea
of possession, becoming devoid of the idea of 'me' and 'mine' even with
regard to so much as one's body and life; and for the very same reason,
santah, serene, withdrawn; the monk who is effortless and steadfast in
Knowledge, kalpate, becomes fit; brahma-bhuyaya, for becoming Brahman.

18.54 One who has become Brahman and has
attained the blissful Self does not grieve or desire.Becoming the same
towards all beings, he attainssupreme devotion to Me.

18.54 Brahma-bhutah, one who has *become*
*Brahman, attained Brahman through the above **process*; and prasanna-atma,
[Prasada means the manifestation of the supreme Bliss of the Self as
a result of the total cessation of all evils. Prasannaatma is one who has
attained this in the present life itself.] has attained the blissful Self,
the indwelling Self; na, does not; socati, grieve-does not lament for the
loss of something or the lack of some quality in oneself; nor kanksati,
desire. By saying 'he does not
grieve nor desire', this nature of one who has
attained Brahman is being restated. For it does not stand to reason that in
the case of a knower of
Brahman there can be any hankering for something unattained. Or, (in place
of kanksati) the reading may be na hrsyati, does not become
elated. Becoming samah, the same; sarvesu bhutesu, towards all being-i.e.,
he verily judges what is happiness and sorrow in all beings by the
same standard as he would apply to himself (cf. 6.32); but the meaning is
not 'seeing the Self alike in all beings', for this will be spoken of in
(the next
verse), 'Through devotion he knows Me'-; he, the
one who is of this kind and steadfast in
Knowledge, labhate, attains; param, supreme;
madbhaktim, devotion to Me, to the supreme Lord; (he attains) devotion
which is described as
Knowledge, as the 'fourth' in, '...four classes of
people...adore Me' (7.16). Then,

18.55 Through devotion he knows Me in reality, as to what and who I am.
Then, having known Me in truth, he enters (into Me) immediately after that

18.55 Bhaktya, through devotion, through that devotion described as
Knowledge; abhijanati, he knows; mam, Me; tattvatah, in reality; as to
yavan, what I am, with the extensive differences created
by limiting adjuncts; and yah asmi, *who I am when all distinctions created
by the limiting adjuncts are destroyed-Me who am the supreme
Person comparable to space [In points of all-pervasiveness*
*and non-attachment.] and one-without-a-second, absolute, homogeneous
Consciousness, birthless,ageless, immortal, fearless and deathless*.
Tatah, then; jnatva, having known; mam, Me, thus; tattvatah, in truth;
visate, he enters into Me, Myself; tadanantaram, immediately after
that (Knowledge).
*Here, by saying, 'having known, he*
*enters without delay', it is not meant that the acts **of 'knowing' and
'entering immediately after' are **different. What then? What is meant is
the absolute Knowledge itself that has to no other result, [In place of
phalantarabhava-jnana-matram eva, Ast.reads 'phalantarbhavat jnanamatram
eva, absolute **Knowledge itself, since there is no other result'.-*
*Tr.] for it has been said, 'And...understand Me to be the "Knower of the
field*", (13.2).

Best Wishes,


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