[Advaita-l] Visheshana and Lakshana

kuntimaddi sadananda kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Sun Dec 17 03:41:32 EST 2017

Andandji - PraNAmsĀ  and thanks for your input.
Hari Om!Sadananda 

   On Sunday, December 17, 2017, 1:32:04 PM GMT+5:30, Anand Hudli via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote: 
In terms of modern logic, a condition or property A is necessary for some B
when B -> A, i.e B implies A. For example, if we say "having horns"(A)
means "cow" (B) , this may be accepted as a necessary condition, since an
animal being a cow implies it has horns. B->A. However, this is not a
sufficient condition, because there are other species of animals with
horns. A condition or property A is sufficient for some B when A->B, i.e. A
implies B. For example, we may define "animal yielding milk and other
products for preparation of panchagavya " (A) as "cow" (B). In this case,
A-> B, since any animal that yields milk and other products required for
panchagavya is indeed a cow. So this is a sufficient condition. However, it
is not necessary, since there are cows (barren cows) that do not give milk,
and such cows are also to be accounted for. A necessary but not sufficient
condition leads to what is termed as ativyApti, as I explained in my
earlier post. A sufficient but not necessary condition leads to what is
termed as avyApti. The absence of the three defects mentioned earlier- the
dUShaNatrayarAhitya- ensures a set of properties is both necessary and
sufficient. In the ancient Indian context, "gotvam" is defined as
"sAsnAdimatvam" (having a dewlap), which is considered both necessary and

In the case of Brahman, yes, all words can only indicate Brahman through
lakShyArtha only.



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