[Advaita-l] Tattvabodha of Adi Sankaracharya - 5

S Jayanarayanan sjayana at yahoo.com
Sun Dec 8 14:25:36 EST 2019

(Continued from previous post)
c.1 shamAdisAdhanasampattiH kA What are the six
accomplishments starting with Sama ?
These six virtues are - Sama dama uparama
titikshA SraddhA and samAdhAnam. Then a
definition of each of these is given by the
c.2.1 shamaH kaH? What is Sama ?
c.2.2 manonigrahaH Control of mind.
Mind is one of the antaHkarana's or
antarindiriya's (inner equipment) and is
responsible for oscillations or wavering in the
flow of thoughts. Control of mind is Sama and is
developed by Bhakti Yoga, upAsana, tapas etc.
c.2.3 damaH kaH? What is dama ?
c.2.4 chakShurAdibAhyendriyanigrahaH . dama or Indriya Nigraha
is the control of external sense organs
(bahirindriyas) which are responsible for
perception and action. We do not want the senses
to control us but we want us to control them.
c.2.5 uparamaH kaH? What is uparama ?
c.2.6 svadharmAnuShThAnameva . Compliance to one's own
dharma. Uparama or Uparati is dutiful to follow
one's own dharma. There are some universal
duties (sAmAnya dharma) which are common
for every individual like compassion, ahimsA,
satyam, dayA etc. And there are special duties
(viSesha dharma); one's own particular duties
are called sva dharma for every individual
towards himself/herself the parents family
neighbors society etc. These duties will vary
between individuals and even between
different points in time for the same
individual. Bhagavad Gita discusses this
c.2.7  titikShA kA ? What is titikshA ?
c.2.8 shItoShNasukhaduHkhAdisahiShNutvam .
Titiksha is acceptance of pairs of opposites
- dvandvA - and dealing with them in life. Author
gives an example of heat and cold pleasure and
pain which explain the concept of accepting pairs
of opposites. It does not indicate passive
acceptance or not to let emotions taking over
the experience of pairs of opposites but to
understand and accept them as nature.
c.2.9 shraddhA kIdR^ishI ? What is SraddhA ?
c.2.10. guruvedAntavAkyAdiShu vishvAsaH shraddhA .
Faith in the words of the Guru and
scriptures is SraddhA.
It is the unconditional belief in Guru's
words. Guru teaches the same truth as the
scriptures say but will supplement or present it
in a fashion which is suitable to the level of the
student. An equipment (pramANa) is required
to understand any fact or its nature (vishaya).
For example a scale (paurusheya pramANa) can
be used to measure a paurusheya (man made)
vishaya - for instance, the length of a wire.
Extrapolation of the same leads to the fact that
an apaurusheya pramANa (non human
instrument) is needed to understand an
apaureshaya vishaya. Our scriptures are
apaureshaya (non human origin) and they are used
to understand the Self. Vedas are dharma
pramAnas and talk about the nature of Self . Guru
alone by his vision and experience can make the
student understand this knowledge about the Self
and so the faith in Guru's words is represented
as one of the required qualifications.
c.2.11 samAdhAna.n kim ?  What is samAdhAnam?
c.2.12 chittaikAgratA . One-pointedness of the mind.
Samadhana is the concentration or focus of mind
on one task. This is the single-pointedness or
absorption of mind in that task. Here the task is
the enquiry into the Truth or the Knowledge of
the Self. The entire Yoga Shastra deals with
methods to develop concentration.
Thus the group of six sub-qualifications
of the 3rd qualif ication for one to become
eligible, have been discussed by the Author.
The fourth qualification of sAdhana catushtaya
is mumukshutvam and is discussed now.
(Continued in next post)

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