[Advaita-l] Tattvabodha of Adi Sankaracharya - 33
sjayana at yahoo.com
Tue Mar 30 15:50:19 EDT 2021
(Continued from previous post)
Tattva Bodha of Adi Sankaracharya -
A Vedantic Primer: Part 2 (contd.)
(Lecture Notes compiled by Venkat Ganesan from the series of
SVBF Lectures given by Dr. S. YEGNASUBRAMANIAN)
The discussion on the mahAvAkya _tat'-tvam-'asi' was concluded in the last article of this series (Paramaartha
Tattvam Issues 5.1 & 5.2). We will continue with the discussion of jeevanmukta in this article.
6. Fruit of Self-Knowledge - jnAnaphala
This section enumerates the benefits of the
Knowledge of the Self. One who realizes the
identity between Jiva and Isvara identifies himself
with Brahma or Pure Consciousness. This
Knowledge of vedAnta should be imparted by a
Guru. Only a Guru can indicate the subtle
meaning behind vedAnta and make one realize
the Self. The knowledge can be gained in three
different ways pratyaksha, paroksha and
aparoksha. Pratyaksha knowledge is direct
knowledge which is gained by direct perception
of an object by any of the sense organs. The
object is 'near' the knower or perceiver. Paroksha
knowledge is indirect where the object of
knowledge is not in the vicinity of the perceiver
but the means of knowledge is through inference
- for example, if there is smoke, there should be
fire. The third one is aparoksha which is neither
direct nor indirect, but immediate.
The immediate knowledge is to realize that
the object of knowledge already exists in oneself.
Knowledge of the Self can only qualify such
an immediate definition and can only be
imparted by a Guru by his teachings. When the
Jiva realizes he is brahman or Suddha caitanyam,
he becomes a jivanmukta in this birth and
videhamukta after this human life. So, as a result
of this knowledge the jiva becomes a jnaanI and
is liberated. The liberation referred here is from
samsara or karma phala.
eva.n cha vedAntavAkyaiH sadgurUpadeshena cha sarveShvapi bhUteShu
yeShAM brahmabuddhirutpannA te jIvanmuktAH ityarthaH .
Hence, by the vedAntic teachings (words) imparted
by a vedAntic teacher (sadguru), those in whom
the Knowledge of Brahmawith respect to all beings
is born, they are the jivanmuktas (liberated while
vedAntavAkyaiH by vedAntic teachings
sadgurUpadeshena cha With the teachings of a vedAntic
(sat - AtmA) teacher
sarveShvapi bhUteShu yeShAM brahmabuddhirutpannA Those in whom the
Knowledge of brahman is born with respect
to all beings
jIvanmuktAH ityarthaH are known as jivanmuktas -
liberated (from samsAra) i.e, the Knowledge
that 'I am poorNa'.
Then, the student will ask -
nanu jIvanmuktaH kaH ?
Then, who is a jivanmukta?
yathA deho.ahaM puruSho.ahaM brAhmaNo.aha.n shUdro.ahamasmIti
dR^iDhanishchayastathA nAhaM brAhmaNaH na shUdraH na puruShaH
kintu asa.ngaH sachchidAnandasvarUpaH prakAsharUpaH
sarvAntaryAmI chidAkAsharUpo.asmIti dR^iDhanishchaya
rUpo.aparokShaj~nAnavAn jIvanmuktaH ..
Just as the one who has the firm belief that 'I am
the body, a man, a Brahmin, a Sudra' - in the same
way, one who has the firm belief (aparoksha jnAna)
that 'I am not a Brahmin, not a Sudra, not a man,
but am unattached, of the nature of saccidAnanda,
effulgent, the inner spirit of all, the formless
awareness' - is the jivanmukta.
The term aparokShaj~nAnaM is the immediate knowledge
and is nothing but Atmaj~nAna itself.
kintu asa.ngaH , But free from all associations
sachchidAnandasvarUpaH Of the nature of sat (existing
in all three time domains), cit (of the nature of
caitanya) and aananda (of the nature of poorNa)
sarvAntaryAmI In and through everything in creation.
As kAraNam (cause) is in and through all kAryam (effect)
- like gold is in all the oranaments Since 'I am
Brahma, the cause, I exist in all' as the antaryAmI -
chidAkAsharUpaH 'I am space-like awareness - the
Formless Consciousness'. (Here caitanyam is
compared to all pervading space).
Physically there is no visible difference between
a jivanmukta and others.
Now on, the author elaborates on who a
brahmaivAhamasmItyaparokShaj~nAnena nikhilakarmabandhavinirmuktaH syAt .
By the immediate knowledge (aparoksha jnAna) that
'I am brahman' one becomes free from samsAra of
brahma-asmi-iti-aparokSha-j~nAnena By the immediate
knowledge that 'I am brahman'
nikhila-karmabandha-vinirmuktaH syAt , one becomes free
from bondage (of all actions).
(Continued in next post)
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